Dual-Window Superpixel Data Augmentation for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Deep learning (DL) has been shown to obtain superior results for classification tasks in the field of remote sensing hyperspectral imaging. Superpixel-based techniques can be applied to DL, significantly decreasing training and prediction times, but the results are usually far from satisfactory due to overfitting. Data augmentation techniques alleviate the problem by synthetically generating new samples from an existing dataset in order to improve the generalization capabilities of the classification model. In this paper we propose a novel data augmentation framework in the context of superpixel-based DL called dual-window superpixel (DWS). With DWS, data augmentation is performed over patches centered on the superpixels obtained by the application of simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) superpixel segmentation. DWS is based on dividing the input patches extracted from the superpixels into two regions and independently applying transformations over them. As a result, four different data augmentation techniques are proposed that can be applied to a superpixel-based CNN classification scheme. An extensive comparison in terms of classification accuracy with other data augmentation techniques from the literature using two datasets is also shown. One of the datasets consists of small hyperspectral small scenes commonly found in the literature. The other consists of large multispectral vegetation scenes of river basins. The experimental results show that the proposed approach increases the overall classification accuracy for the selected datasets. In particular, two of the data augmentation techniques introduced, namely, dual-flip and dual-rotate, obtained the best results.

keywords: hyperspectral, classification, deep learning, CNN, superpixel, SLIC, data augmentation