Razoamento siloxístico aproximado: unha contribución aos patróns de inferencia e casos de uso

In this thesis two models of syllogistic reasoning for dealing with arguments that involve fuzzy quantified statements and approximate chaining are proposed. The modeling of quantified statements is based on the Theory of Generalized Quantifiers, which allows us to manage different kind of quantifiers simultaneously, and the inference process is interpreted in terms of a mathematical optimization problem, which allows us to deal with more arguments that standard deductive ones. For the case of approximate chaining, we propose to use synonymy, as used in a thesaurus, for calculating the degree of confidence of the argument according to the degree of similarity between chaining terms. As use cases, different types of Bayesian reasoning (Generalized Bayes' Theorem, Bayesian networks and probabilistic reasoning in legal argumentation) are analysed for being expressed through syllogisms.